Pen Ink Tattoos

North Carolina Areas of Expertise: Lyter provides consultation, examination, training, research and testimony in matters of forensic science, including ink and paper analysis, trace evidence, and questioned document examination. California Areas of Expertise: Fisher Forensic Document Laboratory, Inc. Clients who utilize the Laboratory’s New York Areas of Expertise: Document examinations are provided in Massachusetts Areas of Expertise:

Pen Ink Tattoos

Abstract The ageing process of some inks were studied to evaluate whether it is possible to date them. We used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to measure the evaporation of volatile components. The selected approach thus follows the disappearance of one ink volatile component phenoxyethanol as a function of time. The ink ageing curve represents the ratio of an evaporating compound to a stable compound of ink according to time. The results obtained are thus independent of the quantity of ink sampled for analysis.

A multiple linear regression (MLR) model has been proposed for the estimation of blue ballpoint pen ink dating by measuring the fading of ink with respect to time using UV–Vis spectrophotometer.

We explore what ink drawing has to offer, and share tips for getting started with this versatile medium. Shares Learning how to draw with ink very different from mastering pencil drawing. The most obvious difference is that you can no longer rely on your eraser — make a mistake in ink, and you’ll have to find another way to rectify it. Don’t let that put you off, though. Ink drawing can be an incredibly creative process.

In this article I’ll explain how to get started with ink drawing, from choosing the right equipment and materials, to mastering different techniques. Use the right grip Grip the pen close to the tip and keep the angle of the pen at about 45 degrees. Strokes generally start close to your body and move outward. Use your arm and shoulder, not just your wrist.

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History[ edit ] Early prototypes of reservoir pens[ edit ] An early historical mention of what appears to be a reservoir pen dates back to the 10th century. According to Al-Qadi al-Nu’man d. Leonardo’s journals contain drawings with cross-sections of what appears to be a reservoir pen that works by both gravity and capillary action. Historians also took note of the fact that the handwriting in the inventor’s surviving journals is of a consistent contrast throughout, rather than the characteristic fading pattern typical of a quill pen caused by expending and re-dipping.

A young pen maker named Guiseppe Carboni opened his first workshop in in Turin, Italy, and named it Cervinia, after one of the highest peaks in the western Italian Alps, Mt. Cervino. The company was known for the quality of its craftsmanship, and the variety of filling systems and celluloid colors used to create its fountain pens.

Quill pens were in use by the year One of the problems with quill pens is that a good deal of skill was required to turn a quill into a good pen and to maintain it in good working order. Zakim recently stated that “after it become possible to purchase ready-made versions [of quill pens] that were easily replaced once they wore out. Quill pens were still popular in the mid th century, and we have seen US advertisements from to An study by Bore indicates that a relatively small number of handmade steel pens FoxTutors.

All four of these men were English. Zakim recently wrote, with reference to the early 19th century, “Many contemporaries insisted that a hard quill with a clear barrel, kept well mended, remained the best tool for writing. Metal pen manufacturers subsequently sought to duplicate the ‘soft feeling’ and ‘freedom of action’ characteristic of a fine quill The earliest US advertisement we have found was received by a potential customer in The latter advertised Gillott’s, Windle’s, and Perryian steel pens.

A gold pen won a prize at the exposition in London.

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It seems to me that fountain pens are a very personal thing, and one person’s taste won’t always match that of another. Subject to that caveat, I have tried many pens, and the smoothest in my experience that are still reasonably affordable are: If you’re looking for something genuinely vintage, you can find Parker 51s on eBay all day for about bfifty US dollars or so.

Opinions of ink dating chemists, both government and private, differ on the reliability of the above described ink aging methods. Therefore, before applying any of these methods to actual case work the author conducted an independent evaluation of the reliability of the R-Ratio, Percent Extraction, Dye-Ratio and Accelerated Aging techniques for.

Types of Pens Varieties and Types of Pens Pens are writing instruments that use ink to leave a mark on the surface. It is probably the oldest writing tool that we still use although we again use styluses but in a different way. Reed pen is pen made from one piece bamboo or reed. It has a split nib that leads ink to the point of a pen. It is the oldest type of pen that we used and they have been found in Ancient Egyptian sites dating from the 4th century BC.

Quill is a pen made from a flight feather of a large bird. They replaced reed pens that were too stiff and had short lifespan. They also have split nib and work with help of capillary action and gravity. They were most important writing tool in the Western world between 6th and 19th century. Ink brush is a small brush used for calligraphy in East Asia. Its body is made from materials like bamboo, gold, silver, jade, ivory, red sandalwood or spotted bamboo.

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Hallmarks and other markings 4. Date codes on Parker Pens Updated Oct In mid Parker began marking most pens and pencils with a date code, both the barrel and the nibs were marked, but lacking a date code doesn’t necessarily mean that the pen was made pre , since many imprints have been worn off with use. The first date codes, found for example on the Vacumatics, consists of two digits, the first one denoting the quarter of production, the second denoting the production year.

Hence a “47” marking on a ‘s pen indicate that the pen was produced in the fourth quarter of , not , which is a common misconception.

See Ink Analysis / Ink Dating (PDF). Some of the materials we examine are paper, ink, typewriter, computer printer, carbon paper, xerographic copies, and pencil. See Tools.

Order Form Carter’s Ink Cubes This is the place to be for old ink bottles from the early s up to the s. Many of the bottles we have listed are strictly for the ink bottle collector. We also have a number of older ink bottles that still contain useable fountain pen inks which many fountain pen aficionados prefer over modern day inks. In addition to our selection of vintage ink bottles on this page, you’ll also find related items such as ink eraser fluids, rubber stamp inks and traveling ink bottle containers.

Embossed Sanfords on bottom. This bottle would have originally had a cork stopper, but the stopper is missing.

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Antique Ink Bottles An ink bottle was made of glass and typically sat on a desk. The writer would dip the pen or quill into the bottle to put more ink on the pen. Because they set on a desk, ink bottles were often decorative. Ink wells as opposed to “ink bottles” were typically metal with a glass insert, often ornate, and sat on a desk.

Abstract: Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection.

Click on the image for a larger view! The colours of the Vacumatic Parker 51’s and the Aerometric Parker 51’s. The Parker “51” took eleven years to develope but Parker sold over 20 million pens during more than 30 years! Parker spent the same amount in dollars to promote the pen, but in reached million dollars in sales.

A pretty good investment, eh? It was named the Parker “51” because Parker felt that they needed a name that wouldn’t be hard to pronounce in any country and also easy to remember. Also at this time Route 51 was built through Janesville and it is quite probable that this also was a reason for the the name.

Furthermore It also came out of research in , the 51’st anniversary for the Parker Pen Company.